Publications 1999

Scarratt K., Bosshart G., DelRe N., Fritsch E., Jobbins A., King J., Zucker B. (1999) « Orange Pearls » from the Melo volutes (Marine Gastropods). A gemological study of a unique collection with data from other examinations. In "The Pearl and the Dragon, a study of Vietnamese Pearls and the History of the Oriental Pearl Trade", Editeur Derek J. Content, Houlton, Maine, USA, pp. 79-108.

Shigley J.E., Fritsch E. (1999) Synthetic gem diamonds and their gemological identification. Dans "Science & Technology of Diamond", Editeur G.S. Bhatnagar, Cambridge International Science Publishing, Cambridge, U.K., pp. 77-93.

Fritsch E., McClure S.F., Ostrooumov M., Andres Y., Moses T., Koivula J.I., Kammerling R.C. (1999) The identification of Zachery-treated turquoise, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 4-16. 

Elen S., Fritsch E. (1999) The separation of natural from synthetic colorless sapphire, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp.30-41 

Liu Y., Shigley J.E., Fritsch E., Hemphill S. (1999) A colorimetric study of the alexandrite effect in gemstones. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 371-385.

Ostrooumov M., Fritsch E., Lasnier B., Lefrant S. (1999) Spectres Raman des opales : aspect diagnostique et aide à la classification. European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 11, pp. 899-908. 

Fritsch E., Wery J., Ostrooumov M. (1999) Classification of gem opals using Raman spectroscopy. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 145. 

Giuliani G., Chaussidon M., Schubnel H.-J., Piat D., Rollion-Bard C., France-Lanord C., Giard D., De Narvaez D., Rondeau B. (1999) Historique des gisements d'émeraude et identification des émeraudes anciennes. Revue de gemmologie a.f.g., vol. 138-139, pp. 22-23. 

Fritsch E., Carrère P., Moses T. (1999) La détection du Jade B: comparaison des différentes méthodes de laboratoire. Revue de gemmologie a.f.g., No.136, pp. 14-18. 

Fritsch E., Maitrallet P., Hemond G., Lasnier B., Notari F., Froyer G., Louarn G. (1999) Première caractérisation du Permasafe, nouveau matériau de remplissage des fractures utilisé pour les émeraudes. Revue de gemmologie a.f.g. ,No. 136, pp. 44-46. 

Fritsch E., Rossman G.R. (1999) L’origine de la couleur dans les gemmes: 1ère partie. Revue de gemmologie a.f.g., No. 137, pp. 10-16. 

Chalain J.-P., Fritsch E., Hänni H.A. (1999) Détection des diamants GEPOL: une première étape. Revue de gemmologie a.f.g., No. 138-139, pp. 24-29. Traduit en anglais « Detection of GEPOL diamonds, a first stage », idem, pp. 30-33. 

Fritsch E. , Rossman G.R. (1999) L’origine de la couleur dans les gemmes: 2 ème partie, Revue de gemmologie a.f.g., No. 138-139, pp. 55-61. Republiée pour cause d’erreur de l’imprimeur dans No. 140. 

Fritsch E., Lasnier B., Ostrooumov M., Wery J. (1999) Classification of gem opals using Raman spectroscopy. Indian Gemmologist, Vol. VIII, pp. 39-40. 

Peucat J.-J., Lasnier B., Fritsch E., Le Coz - Bouhnik M., Boudard M. (1999) A new method for chemical analysis of gems: ICPMS-LA. Example of emeralds and andalusite. Indian Gemmologist, Vol. VIII, pp. 44. 

Ostroumov M., Fritsch E., Lefrant S. (1999) Primeros datos sobre la espectrometria Raman de los opalos. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 73-80. 

Fritsch E. (1999) Comprendre les macles : une question de symétrie. Le règne Minéral, No. 29, pp. 47-51.  

Parodi G.C., Rondeau B., Cochet B. (1999) Les béryls bleus de l'aiguille de Charmoz. Le règne Minéral, n° Hors-Série V, pp. 57-58. 

Fritsch E., Rondeau B., Ostrooumov M., Lasnier B., Marie A.M., Barreau A., Wery J., Connoué J., Lefrant S. (1999) Découvertes récentes sur l’opale. Revue de gemmologie a.f.g. vol. 138/139, pp. 34-40.

Publications 1998

D. Giard (Editeur), G. Giuliani, A. Cheilletz, E. Fritsch et E. Gonthier (coéditeurs) "L’émeraude", (1998), Association Française de Gemmologie, Paris, France. 235 pages.

Fritsch E. (1998) The nature of color in diamonds. Dans "The nature of diamonds", Editeur G. Harlow, American Museum of Natural History et Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Grande-Bretagne, pp. 23-47.

Maclear R.D., Connell S.H., Doyle B.P., Machi I.Z., Butler J.E., Sellschop J.P.F., Naidoo S.R., Fritsch E. (1998) Quantitative trace hydrogen distributions in natural diamond using 3D-micro-ERDA microscopy. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, Vol. 136-138, pp. 579-582. 

Muhlmeister S., Fritsch E., Shigley J.E., Devouard B., Laurs B. (1998) Separating natural and synthetic rubies on the basis of trace element chemistry. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 80-101. Troisième prix, Dr. Edward J. Gübelin most valuable article award, Gems & Gemology 

Reinitz I.M., Fritsch E., Shigley J.E. (1998) An oscillating visible light optical center in some natural green to yellow diamonds. Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 7, pp. 313-316. 

Balitsky V.S., Makhina I.B., Prygov V.I., Mar’in A.A., Emel’chenko A.G., Fritsch E., McClure S.M., Lu T., DeGhionno D., Koivula J.I., Shigley J.E. (1998) Russian synthetic pink quartz. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 34-43. 

Fritsch E. (1998) La 26ème Conférence Gemmologique en Allemagne. Revue de gemmologie a.f.g. No. 133, pp. 4-6. 

Fritsch E. (1998) Une journée diamant exceptionelle. Revue de gemmologie a.f.g. No. 133, pp. 7-9. 

Fritsch E., Shigley J.E., Lasnier B. (1998) Le traitement des gemmes. Pour la Science, No. 245, pp. 66-73. 

Fritsch E., Moon M., Wu S.T., Liu Y., Park J.-S. (1998) Les nouvelles émeraudes synthétiques d’Asie: émeraude synthétique hydrothermale chinoise, émeraudes synthétiques par dissolution anhydre coréenne et taïwanaise, « l’Emeraude », Editeur D. Giard, coéditeurs G. Giuliani, A. Cheilletz, E. Fritsch et E. Gonthier, Association Française de Gemmologie, Paris, France, pp. 131-138. 

Spiesser M., Fritsch E. (1998) Découverte du chrome et du béryllium dans l’émeraude par Nicolas-Louis Vauquelin - 200e anniversaire. Revue de gemmologie a.f.g., numéro spécial « l’Emeraude », Nos. 134-135, pp. 43-46. Egalement dans le livre « L’Emeraude », voir ci dessus, pp. 43-46. 

Marie A.-M., Ostrooumov M., Wery J., Fritsch E., Lasnier B., Lefrant S. (1998) Electron microscopy of common opal structure. Electron Microscopy 98, Symposium II, Vol. IV, pp.145-146. 

Ostrooumov M., Fritsch E., Lasnier B., Lefrant S. (1998) Espectros diagnosticos de reflexion de minerales en la region infraroja lejana. Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Mineralogia, Vol. 21, pp. 147-152 

Grenier de Cardenal L., Fritsch E., Lasnier B. (1998) Du rêve à la réalité des traitements. Catalogue de l’exposition Des pierres... précieuses et mystérieuses, p. 12-13.

Publications 1997

Fritsch E., Shigley J.E., Park J.-K., Moon M. (1997) Synthesis technology for single crystal diamond and distinction methods of artificially synthesized diamond from natural diamond (en coréen). Analytical Science and Technology, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 73A-80A 

Shigley J.E., Moses T.M., Reinitz I., Elen S., McClure S.F., Fritsch E. (1997) Gemological properties of near colorless synthetic diamonds. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 42-53. Troisième prix, Dr. Edward J. Gübelin most valuable article award, Gems & Gemology 

Fritsch E. (1997) Alerte aux chrysoberyls radioactifs. Revue de gemmologie a.f.g. No. 132, p. 7.

Publications 1996

Balitsky V.S., Makhina I.B., Emel’chenko A.G., Mar’in A.A., Shigley J., Fritsch E.,Koivula J. (1996) Formation of rose phosphorus-bearing quartz and causes of its rarity nature : an experimental study (en russe). Geochimiya, No. 11, pp. 1074-1081.

Koivula J.-I., Kammerling R.C., DeGhionno D.G., Reinitz I., Fritsch E., Johnson M.L.(1996) Gemological investigation of a new type of Russian hydrothermal synthetic emerald. Gems & Gemology ,Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 32-39. Troisième prix, Most valuable article of the year award, Gems & Gemology. 

Lenef A., Brown S.W., Redman D.A., Rand S.C., Shigley J.E. and Fritsch E. (1996) Electronic structure of the N-V center in diamond: Experiments. Physical Review B, Vol. 53, No. 20, pp. 13427-13440. 

Fritsch E. (1996) Diamant : formes ordinaires et extraordinaires. Bulletin de l’A.MI.S., No. 17, pp. 3-12. 

Fritsch E. (1996) Chinese synthetics: the anonymous crowd. Jewelers’ Circular-Keystone. Vol. 167, No. 3, pp. 51-52.

Publications 1995

Fritsch E., Shigley J.E., Moses T., Rossman G.R., Zucker B., Balfour I. (1995) A Green Diamond. Editeur D.J. Content, W.S. Maney & Son Ltd., Leeds, Grande-Bretagne, 42 pages.

Shigley J.E., Fritsch E., Reinitz I., Moses T.M.(1995) A chart for the separation of natural and synthetic diamonds. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp.256-264. Deuxième prix, Most valuable article of the year award, Gems & Gemology

Johnson M.L., Mercer M.E., Fritsch E., Maddison P., Shigley J.E. (1995) ”Ti-sapphire” : Czochralski-pulled synthetic pink sapphire from Union Carbide. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 31, No.3, pp. 188-195. 

Lasnier B. (1995) The Raman microprobe: a new gemmological tool. The Australian Gemmologist, vol. 19, n°1, pp. 5-7.

Liu Y., Shigley J.E., Fritsch E., Hemphill S.(1995) Relation between the crystallographic orientation and the « alexandrite effect » in synthetic alexandrite. Mineralogical Magazine. Vol. 59, pp. 111-114. 

Liu Y., Shigley J.E., Fritsch E., Hemphill S.(1995) Abnormal hue-angle change of the gemstone tanzanite between CIE illuminants D65 and A in CIELAB color space. Color Research and Application.Vol. 20, No. 4, pp.245-250. 

Fritsch E. (1995) Spectroscopies commonly applied to gem identification. Analusis, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. M37-38. 

Kammerling R.C., Fritsch E., Koivula J.I. (1995) Swarogem’s new synthetic ruby with induced fingerprints. Jewellery News Asia,No. 127, pp. 70-72-74-76. 

Fritsch E., McClure S.F. (1995) Synthetic amethyst: Features of new type from Russia. Jewellery News Asia, No. 129, pp. 90-92.

Shigley J.E., Fritsch E., Koivula J.I. Kammerling R.C. (1995) Identifying features of synthetic diamonds. Rapaport Diamond Report. Vol. 18, No. 20, pp. 4-5 et supplément couleur. 

Fritsch E., Kammerling R.C., Koivula J.I. (1995) An examination of Swarogreen - a new imitation emerald from Austria. The Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp.15-18.

Kammerling R.C, Crowningshield R., Reinitz I., Fritsch E. (1995) Separating natural pinks from their treated counterparts. Diamond World Review, No. 88, pp. 86-89.

Publications 1994

Koivula J.I., Kammerling R.C., Fritsch E. (1994) Two interesting "double star" sapphires. The Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 18, No. 7, pp. 235-236.

Kammerling R.C., Koivula J.I., Fritsch E. (1994) An examination of Chatham flux grown synthetic pink sapphires. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 149-154.

Fritsch E. (1994) Type-B jadeite: new polymers and estimating amount of wax. Jewellery News Asia, No. 123, pp. 106-110.

Shigley J.E., Fritsch E., Liu Y. (1994) Gemological Research Update (en Chinois), China Gems, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 49-51.

Gorton A., Fritsch E. (1994) Identifying Russian synthetic diamonds. The Journal of the Gemmological Association of Hong Kong, Vol. XVII, pp. 57-62.

Liu Y., Shigley J.E., Fritsch E., Hemphill S.(1994) The « alexandrite effect » in gemstones. Color Research and Application, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 186-191.

Kammerling R.C., McClure S.F., Johnson M.L., Koivula J.I., Moses T., Fritsch E., Shigley J.E.(1994) An update on filled diamonds; Identification and durability. Gems & Gemology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 142-177.

Fritsch E., Shigley J.E. (1994) Origin of the purple and pink colors of manganoan sugilite from the Wessels mine, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 58, pp. 681-685.

Publications 1993

Fritsch E., Shigley J.E. (1993) The separation of natural from synthetic gem-quality diamonds on the basis of crystal growth criteria. Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 128, pp. 425-428.

Rooney M.L.-T., Welbourn C.M., Shigley J.E., Fritsch E., Reinitz I. (1993) DeBeers near-colorless to blue experimental synthetic diamonds. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 38-45.

McClure S.F., Kammerling R.C., Fritsch E. (1993) Update on diffusion-treated corundum, red and other colors. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 16-29. 

Fritsch E., Phelps A. (1993) Type IIb diamond thin films deposited onto near-colorless natural gem diamonds. Diamond and Related Materials. Vol. 2, Nos. 2-4, pp. 70-74.

Muhlmeister S., Koivula J.I., Kammerling R.C., Smith C.P., Fritsch E., Shigley J.E. (1993) Flux-grown synthetic red and blue spinels from Russia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 81-100.

Moses T.M., Reinitz I., Fritsch E., Shigley J.E. (1993) Two treated-color synthetic red diamonds seen in the trade. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 182-190.

Shigley J.E., Fritsch E., Reinitz I. (1993) Two near-colorless General Electric Type IIa synthetic diamond crystals. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 191-197.

Fritsch E., Mercer M. (1993) Blue color in sapphire caused by Fe2+/Fe3+ intervalence charge transfer. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 151 et 226.

Shigley J.E., Fritsch E., Koivula J.I., Sobolev N.V., Malinovsky I.Y., Pal’yanov Y.N. (1993) The gemological properties of Russian gem-quality synthetic yellow diamonds. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 228-249.

Shigley J.E., Fritsch E. (1993) A notable red-brown diamond. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 259-266.

Kammerling R.C., Koivula J.I., Kane R.E., Maddison P., Shigley J.E., Fritsch E. (1993) Examining Opticon. Colored Stone, Janvier-Février 1993, pp. 365 & 380.

Shigley J.E., Fritsch E., Kammerling R.C., Moses T.M. (1993) Identifying faceted gem-quality synthetic diamonds. Rapaport Diamond Report, Vol. 16, No. 26, pp. 10-13.

Fritsch E. (1993) "GIA says AGIL's findings insufficient". Letter to the editor. Jewellery News Asia, Septembre 1993, pp. 86 & 90.

Fritsch E., Scarratt K. (1993) Gemmological properties of type Ia diamonds with an unusually high hydrogen content. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 23, No. 8, pp. 15-24.

Shigley J.E., Fritsch E., Kammerling R.C., Moses T.M. (1993) Identifying faceted gem-quality synthetic diamonds. New York Diamonds, No. 22, pp. 48-54.

Shigley J.E., Fritsch E., Kammerling R.C., Moses T.M.(1993) Gemological means described to detect synthetic diamonds. Diamond World Review, No. 77, pp. 42-50.

Publications 1992

Fritsch E., Langelier G. (1992) Origine de la couleur des vésuvianites vertes, mauves et bicolores du Québec. The Canadian Gemmologist, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 6-13.

Fritsch E., Muhlmeister S., Birkner A. (1992) A preliminary spectroscopic study of Biron synthetic pink titanium-beryl. The Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 81-82.

Fritsch E. (1992) Gemological applications of synthetic diamond and diamond-like carbon products grown using the low-pressure deposition technique. Proceedings of the International Gemological Symposium 1991 - Facing the Future, Ed. A. Keller, GIA, Santa Monica, CA, USA, pp. 44.

Chai B.H.T., Fritsch E. (1992) Synthetic blue gehlenite. Proceedings of the International Gemological Symposium 1991 - Facing the Future, Ed. A. Keller, GIA, Santa Monica, CA, USA, pp. 153-154.

Chai B.H.T., Fritsch E. (1992) Synthetic "Scalexandrite" and vanadium chrysoberyl. Proceedings of the International Gemological Symposium 1991 - Facing the Future, Ed. A. Keller, GIA, Santa Monica, CA, USA, pp. 154.

GIA Research (1992) Extremely rare unmounted circular-cut fancy bluish green diamond. Christie's. Magnificent Jewels. No. 7522. pp. 204.

Fritsch E., Scarratt K. (1992) Natural-color nonconductive gray-to-blue diamonds. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 35-42.

Shigley J.E., Fritsch E., Reinitz I., Moon M. (1992) An update on Sumitomo gem-quality synthetic diamonds. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 116-123.

Fritsch E., Wu S.-T. T., Moses T., McClure S.F., Moon M. (1992) Identification of bleached and polymer-impregnated jadeite. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 176-187.

Publications 1991

Koivula J.I., Kammerling R.C., Fritsch E. (1991) Gemmological investigation of a synthetic spinel crystal from the Soviet Union. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 300-304.

Kammerling R.C., Koivula J.I., Fritsch E. (1991) Characterization of a so-called "Reconstructed Lapis Lazuli". The Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 17, No. 11, pp. 450-453.

Fritsch E. (1991) Diamonds colored by hydrogen. Jewelers' Circular Keystone, Vol. 162, No. 6, pp. 66

Kammerling R.C., Koivula J.I., Fritsch E. (1991) Plastic imitation opals purchased in Thailand. The Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 17, No. 12, pp. 498-501.

Fritsch E., Scarratt K., Collins A.T. (1991) Optical properties of diamonds with an unusually high hydrogen content. Materials Research Society International Conference Proceedings. Second International Conference on New Diamond Science and Technology, Washington D.C., September 23-27. Editors R. Messier, J.T. Glass, J.E. Butler, R. Roy. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 671-676.

Fritsch E., Shigley J.E. (1991) Properties of some natural-color and laboratory-irradiated green to blue diamonds. Materials Research Society International Conference Proceedings. Second International Conference on New Diamond Science and Technology, Washington D.C., September 23-27. Editors R. Messier, J.T. Glass, J.E. Butler, R. Roy. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 677-681

Rossman G.R., Fritsch E., Shigley J.E. (1991) Origin of color in cuprian elbaite tourmalines from Sao Jose de Batalha, Paraiba, Brazil. American Mineralogist, Vol. 76, pp. 1479-1484

Kammerling R.C., Koivula J.I., Kane R.E., Maddison P., Shigley J.E., Fritsch E. (1991) Fracture filling of emeralds: Opticon and traditional « oils ». Gems & Gemology, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 70-85.

Kammerling R.C., Koivula J.I., Kane R.E., Fritsch E., Muhlmeister S., McClure S.F. (1991) An examination of nontransparent « CZ » from Russia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 240-247

Publications 1990

Fritsch E., Rossman G.R. (1990) New technologies of the 1980s: their impact on gemology. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 64-75.

Kane R.E., Kammerling R.C., Koivula J.I., Shigley J.E., Fritsch E. (1990) The identification of blue diffusion-treated sapphires. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 115-133. 

Fritsch E., Shigley J.E., Rossman G.R., Mercer M.E., Muhlmeister S.M., Moon M. (1990) Gem-quality cuprian elbaite from Sao Jose de Batalha, Paraiba, Brazil. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 189-205. 

Robert D., Fritsch E., Koivula J.I. (1990) « Emeraldolite » : a new synthetic emerald overgrowth on natural beryl. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 288-293.

Koivula J.I., Kammerling R.C., Fritsch E. (1990) Gemmological description of a glass imitation emerald from Zambia. The South African Gemmologist, Vol.4, No. 2, pp. 7-13.

Fritsch E., Shigley J.E. (1990) Green diamonds suddenly not so rare. Jewellery News Asia, No. 70, pp. 110, 114 and 116.

Fritsch E., Shigley J., Stockton C., Koivula J. (1990) Criteria to tell natural from treated greens can be wrong. Jewellery News Asia, No. 71, pp. 118, 120, 122, 124.

Shigley J.E., Fritsch E. (1990) Color zones can indicate laboratory irradiation. New York Diamonds, No. 11, pp. 74 & 82.

Kammerling R.C., Koivula J.I., Fritsch E. (1990) An examination of chrysoprase from Goias, Brazil. The Australian Gemmologist, pp. 313-315.

Informations supplémentaires